tonguing

Tonguing


Author: Rosario De Luca Published on: January 3, 2021
Disclosure: This post may contain affiliate links, meaning I get a commission if you decide to make a purchase through my links, at no cost to you.

Tonguing Definition

Tonguing is the technique used by wind instrument players in order to begin sounds and to separate one sound from the sounds that follow. Tonguing is not used when playing slurred notes. 

Teach Me!

In the case of reed instruments, the tip of the tongue should be placed against the reed and quickly retracted in order to suddenly release the air pressure.

In the case of flutes and brass instruments, the tip of the tongue should be placed behind the upper teeth and retracted to produce the consonant “T” or “D”. This movement is called “tongue stroke”. 

In really rapid passages, pairs of syllables can be used alternating one another: you usually alternate “Te” and “Ge”, which means that you alternate a stroke behind the upper teeth with a stroke on the soft palate. The resulting pattern is “te-ke-te-ke” or “de-ge-de-ge” and this is known as double tonguing. To play triplets more comfortably, you can use the pattern “te-ke-te-te-ke-te” or “te-te-ke-te-te-ke”, and this is called “triple tonguing." Finally, flutter-tonguing is a modern effect in music from the 20th century and it consists in rolling the tip of the tongue for a certain amount of time, pronouncing a long Italian “R” (which is a bit stronger than English “R”).

Check out a few of these musicians producing tonguing techniques!

Here is how to do a flutter tongue on the flute!

Learn about double-tonguing from the principal clarinetist of the Baltimore Symphony!

Learn about triple tonguing from an Interlochen teacher!

Now, practice with some really good books available, unique to your instrument!

Tounge Level Exercises For Trumpet: Treble Clef Edition. Composed by Claude Gordon. SWS. Softcover. With Standard notation. Carl Fischer Music #O5089. Published by Carl Fischer Music (CF.O5089).
243 Double and Triple Tonguing Exercises Composed by Victor V. Salvo. Woodwind - Flute Method or Collection. Book. 36 pages. Belwin Music #00-PROBK01201. Published by Belwin Music (AP.PROBK01201).

History of tonguing

Until the second half of 1600, most of the written pedagogy of tonguing was contained in books relating the improvisation of diminution: diminution consisted in changing music, making it more difficult and virtuosic, thus requiring rapid tonguing.

The Italian Tradition

During this period the most important sources were Italian and were well developed: there were explanations of double tonguing which was used for expressive reasons other than for speed. They tried to use tonguing as well to imitate vocal pronunciation and articulation of sound. 

We should mention the following theorists: Silvestro Ganassi (1492-1565), Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576), Girolamo Dalla Casa (c. 1543-1601), Riccardo Rognoni (c. 1550-1620), Francesco Rognoni Taeggio (after 1550-1626): they suggested single tonguing for slower notes and compound tonguings for faster notes.

For hard tonguing they suggested this pattern: “te-ke-te-ke”; for a less hard tonguing they suggested “te-re-te-re”; and for a sweet tonguing they suggested “le-re-le-re”. Of course we are referring again to Italian R, which, as said before, is stronger than the English one.

Even after that period, wind players tongued almost all the notes except, sometimes, the trills, until the 18th century.

The French and German Tradition

In the French tradition of that time, we don’t have mention of so many syllables: the most used were “tu” and “ru”. These syllables were abandoned as the Italian style entered into the French tradition.

After that, two different approaches developed. The first one still used the syllables. For instance, in Germany, Joachim Quantz (1697-1773) suggested varying the single tonguing, choosing between the syllables “ti” and “di”. “Di-ri” and “ti-ri” were suggested for moderate fast pacing and the double tonguing “did’ll” was suitable for the fastest passages.

The German Johann George Tromlitz (1725-1805) suggested the use of the vowel “a”; the French Antoine Mahaut (1729-1785) intermixed tongued and slurred notes, mentioning what is now a common pattern, that is the “two slurred-two tongued” pattern. For double tonguing he agreed with Quantz.

François Devienne (1759-1803) used the pattern “dougue-dougue” for double tonguing, which reminds the Italian “te-che-te-che”.

This kind of double tonguing has been widely used among trumpet players: the Italian Girolamo Fantini (1600-1675) suggested “te-ghe-the-ghe”; the German Georg Daniel Speer (1636-1707) suggested “dikedank” or “dikedikedank”; the German Johann Ernst Altenburg (1734-1801) suggested “kitikiton” and “tikitikiton”; finally the Scottish John Gunn (c. 1765-c. 1824) suggested “teddy” or “tiddy”.

Doodle Tonguing

The doodle tonguing is a particular style of tonguing developed during the last century especially for trombone players. It is lighter than double tonguing and, if done with a delicate touch, can help even in uncomfortable legato passages. While the use of doodle tonguing is not so widely known in classical music, learning it can be useful to extend a musician’s palette of articulations and pronunciations. While adopted mostly by trombone players, doodle tonguing can be learned by every wind player in order to have another tool to lighten their articulation.

Conclusion

Even if every instrument has its different ways of tonguing, I might suggest to you some current materials which deal very well with instrumental problematics, including tonguing.

This book is really well done, and is referred to French horn players:

The Art of French Horn Playing Brass - French Horn Method or Collection; Method/Instruction. The Art of Series. Learn To Play. Instructional book. With introductory text, instructional text, instructional photos, musical examples and standard notation. 100 pages. Alfred Music #00-0021. Published by Alfred Music (AP.0021).
Paul Taffanel Et Philippe Gaubert - Methode Complete De Flute, Vol. 1 Composed by Paul Taffanel (1844-1908). Leduc. Classical. Softcover. 110 pages. Alphonse Leduc #AL24889. Published by Alphonse Leduc (HL.48183014).
Rosario De Luca

Rosario De Luca

Born in Potenza in 1988, Rosario has been dealing with music since he was 8, starting playing in the local wind band. During his studies at the Conservatory of Potenza, he got in touch with jazz music. In 2011 he earns a Master's degree in Classical Trumpet. He is principal trumpet of Basilicata Big Band, he played with Small Brass, Big Bat Band, Venosa Jazz Orchestra and Venosa Brass Ensemble. He played with important artists such as Cheryl Nickerson, Miss Tia and others. Since 2011 he has been teaching trumpet and he starting to conduct Pietragalla's wind Band "Pafund". Since 2014 he is art director of "I Tamburi dell'Antica Bantia". In 2017 Rosario earned a Master's degree in Wind Orchestra Conducting, with best marks and honors. He still studies with Günter Neuhold. Now he is going to earn a Master's degree in Composition, while teaching trumpet at "Walter Gropius" high school in Potenza.